guide lines for herbal preparations

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل

guide lines for herbal preparations

مُساهمة من طرف صيدلاني سوداني في الثلاثاء يونيو 15, 2010 11:42 pm

In traditional herbal medicine systems, herbal remedies are prepared in several rather standardized ways which usually vary based upon the plant utilized, and sometimes, what condition is being treated. Some of these methods include: infusions (hot teas), decoctions (boiled teas), tinctures (alcohol and water extracts), and macerations (cold-soaking) which are detailed more fully herein


The well-trained herbalist will always throughly review the time-honored method in which a plant has been traditionally prepared—it holds important information for preparing an effective herbal remedy.


It is a bit more trouble and time consuming, making your own natural remedies is usually much more economical than purchasing manufactured products. They can also be much more effective when prepared properly and by following time-honored traditional preparation methods.

The first step is sourcing the good raw plant materials. , and make sure you are obtaining the correct species of plant, it is fresh, and it has been sustainably harvested.

If you don't plan on using the plant(s) immediately, it's best to keep them unopened, in their original packaging, and away from direct sunlight (just put them in a closed cupboard/cabinet). Many plants will absorb moisture and humidity from the air, so if they are opened, reseal them tightly, or put them into glass jars with a tight-fitting lid (avoid metal containers). Most will never require refrigeration or freezing - just keep them at average room temperature (70-80 degrees). Generally, the "shelf-life" for optimum freshness will be about a year for a dried leaves, and two years for dried barks and roots if stored properly. If you live in a warm, high humidity area, it may be impossible to keep moisture out of regularly opened and closed glass containers, and the plants may become moldy. If this happens, discard them and purchase fresh ones. Next time, try storing them in paper lunch bags so they can "breathe" (although this will reduce the shelf-life significantly).

It is not always necessary to find a tea-cut plant to prepare a tea; ground powders can be used to make teas, tinctures and decoctions just as well. Since the plant is finely ground, it usually makes a stronger remedy as more surface area of the plant is available to extract in the liquid. Extra time filtering is normally required when working with plant powders, but many herbalists prefer working with powders instead of bulky cut herbs since they make stronger extracts. It is also recommended to use distilled or purified water when extracting medicinal plants. Regular tap water can contain chlorine and other chemicals which might have an interaction or chain reaction with one or more of the many chemicals found in plants.


عدل سابقا من قبل صيدلاني سوداني في الثلاثاء يونيو 15, 2010 11:46 pm عدل 1 مرات

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صيدلاني سوداني
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رد: guide lines for herbal preparations

مُساهمة من طرف صيدلاني سوداني في الثلاثاء يونيو 15, 2010 11:45 pm


Instructions for the main preparation methods used in the reference guides and in the main plant section are as follows.




Infusions

Infusions are typically used for delicate herbs, leaves and fresh tender plants. Preparing an infusion is much like making a cup of tea. Water is brought just to a boil and then poured over an herb (or combination of herbs), it is covered and allowed to sit/steep for 10-15 minutes or so. It can be prepared in the drinking cup (by just pouring the heated water over the herb in the cup) or by dropping the herb into the pot which the water was heated in. Empty gauze tea-bags are even available at some herb stores which can be filled with herbs and then sealed with a iron. If an infusion is prepared in the heating pan/pot, it's best to use a ceramic pot with a lid (avoid metal pots). Stirring it a few times while steeping (especially with cut herbs) is helpful. Keeping the infusion covered while steeping is generally recommended as well (place a saucer on top of the cup, or a lid on top of the pot). The ratio of herb to water can vary depending on the remedy, the plant, and whether cut herb or powdered herb is used. Generally using 1 teaspoon of powdered herb or 2 teaspoons of more bulky cut herb in a 6-8 ounce cup of water is sufficient. If using a powdered herb; stir once halfway through the seeping time and let the powder settle to the bottom of the cup, then drink the infusion off the top (leaving the sediment in the bottom of the cup). If using a cut herb, strain the infusion with a tea-strainer after seeping. Infusions are best prepared as needed and taken the same day it was prepared and can be taken hot, warm, or cold. Standard dosages of infusions are generally one teacup (6-8 ounces), two or three times daily. The entire day's dosage can be prepared in the morning (2-3 cups at one time), and the remainder refrigerated until ready to use. The exceptions are the more aromatic plants with active essential oils. These are best prepared in single dosages (by the cupful) as needed and taken immediately (and while still hot/warm).

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رد: guide lines for herbal preparations

مُساهمة من طرف صيدلاني سوداني في الثلاثاء يونيو 15, 2010 11:48 pm


Decoctions
Decoctions are usually the method of choice when working with tougher and more fibrous plants, barks and roots (and which have water soluble chemicals). Instead of just steeping it in hot water, the plant material is boiled for a longer period of time to soften the harder woody material and release its active constituents. To prepare a decoction, select a ceramic pot with a snug fitting lid. Measure the amount of herb needed (usually the same ratio of 1 teaspoon powdered herb or 2 teaspoons of cut herb per 8 ounces of water) into the pot and add the proper amount of cold water depending on how many cups of the decoction you wish to prepare. Turn on the heat to medium high and bring to a roiling boil. Place the lid on the pot and reduce the heat to medium or medium-low so that the mixture stays at a good simmer. Simmer it covered for 20 minutes. If you can see steam escaping or smell the aroma of the herb, your lid is not tight enough and valuable essential oils are escaping. After 20 minutes, remove from heat and cool slightly. If using cut herbs, strain the mixture through a tea strainer into a teacup. When straining, make sure to press on the cut herb pieces in the strainer to get as much liquid/decoction out of the herb pieces as possible. If using powdered herb, allow the powder to settle to the bottom of the pot and then pour off the decoction from the top into a teacup (any sediment missed will settle to the bottom of the teacup). Standard dosages for decoction are generally one-half to one cup, two or three times daily. Again, the entire day's dosage can be prepared in the morning (2-3 cups at one time), and the remainder refrigerated until ready to use later in the day.

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رد: guide lines for herbal preparations

مُساهمة من طرف صيدلاني سوداني في الثلاثاء يونيو 15, 2010 11:49 pm


Strong Decoctions
Depending on the type of plant material used, strong decoctions are prepared in two general ways. The first involves boiling the mixture longer. This is usually indicated when working with larger woody pieces of bark. Longer boiling time, up to 2 hours or more, is sometimes necessary to break down, soften, and extract the larger pieces. Alternatively, when smaller woody pieces are used yet a stronger remedy is wanted, the decoction is prepared as above (boiling 20 minutes), then it is allowed to sit/soak overnight before straining out the herb. When straining, again, make sure to press on the cut herb pieces in the strainer to get as much moisture/decoction out of the herb pieces.

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رد: guide lines for herbal preparations

مُساهمة من طرف صيدلاني سوداني في الثلاثاء يونيو 15, 2010 11:56 pm


Tinctures
A tincture is an alcohol and water extract which is used when plants have active chemicals that are not very soluble in water, and/or when a larger quantity is prepared for convenience and wanted for longer term storage. Many properly prepared plant tinctures can last several years or more without losing potency. The percentage of alcohol usually helps determine its shelf-life: the more alcohol used, the longer the shelf life. Sometimes the percentage of alcohol and water is unique to the herbs that are used as some active ingredients are more soluble in alcohol and others more soluble in water..

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رد: guide lines for herbal preparations

مُساهمة من طرف صيدلاني سوداني في الثلاثاء يونيو 15, 2010 11:59 pm


Macerations

This method of preparation is certainly the easiest. The fresh or dried plant material is simply covered in cool water and soaked overnight. The herb is strained out and the liquid is taken. Normally this is used for very tender plants and/or fresh plants, or those with delicate chemicals that might be harmed by heating or which might be degraded in strong alcohol. This is also the easiest to adapt to western methods, since tablets or capsules can be used instead. Alternatively, just stir the ground plant powder into juice, water or smoothies and drink.

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مُساهمة من طرف صيدلاني سوداني في الأربعاء يونيو 16, 2010 12:04 am

Poultices and Compresses

Many herbal remedies are applied directly to the skin as poultices - usually on rashes and wounds and as topical pain-relieving remedies. Poultices are prepared in various ways... from the jungle shaman chewing up fresh leaves or roots and spitting them out onto the skin, to mashing up fresh leaves or roots by hand or with a mortar and pestle. Sometimes just enough hot water is poured over dried or fresh plant material to soften them. Then the wet herbs are placed directly on the skin or between two pieces of cloth and laid on the skin. A light cotton bandage to bind the poultice to the area is generally used (or in the jungle, a nice large flexible leaf is commonly employed and tied with a bit of twine). Compresses are simply soaking a cloth in a prepared infusion, tincture or decoction and laying the cloth onto the affected part of the body/skin. Since most American readers of this book will only have access to dried plant materials to work with, using compresses instead of poultices will suffice for many of the describe indigenous poultice remedies. More specific adaptations and directions where applicable are found in the main plant section under "Traditional Remedy" where it might say to apply an infusion or decoction topically.

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مُساهمة من طرف صيدلاني سوداني في الأربعاء يونيو 16, 2010 12:06 am


Baths and Bathing Remedies

Quite a few popular jungle remedies which have been used for thousands of years are prepared as vapor baths, or medicinal plants are added to bath water and the patient is soaked in it. This method is not unlike some of the currently evolving dermal delivery systems for drug absorption being employed in conventional medicine. The skin is a wonderful organ capable of absorbing plant chemicals (and even synthetic chemicals) directly thru the skin, and into the underlying fat tissue, then into the bloodstream. Since fresh plants are generally used for bathing remedies (chopped or crushed first before adding to the bath water), western adaptations are not always possible when only dried plant materials are available here. In the alternative, try 20 to 30 ounces of a strong decoction or infusion added to your bath water and soak in it for at least 10 minutes.

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